Colouracetam – Side Effects, Doage, Benefits & More

Colouracetam is a fairly new and exotic nootropic that is a part of the racetam family. Like other nootropics of this class, it has a unique pharmacology that makes it a considerably safe memory enhancer and mood brightener.

Colouracetam was developed in 2005 by a major Japanese pharmaceutical company in order to treat cognitive decline in the elderly.

Later it was tested by a US-based biotechnology company in order to treat depression and mood disorders.

Fortunately, it is available as a dietary supplement in the US, and Canada and the UK it is legal to import and possess. However, there are very few nootropic or supplement vendors which sell colouracetam since it is fairly unknown to the general public.



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Who Can Benefit From Colouracetam?

Colouracetam shares many similar mechanisms and benefits with other racetams, especially its older cousin aniracetam. Some of these benefits include:


How Colouracetam Works

Like the others in its class, colouracetam works primarily the acetylcholine system, specifically by increasing the rate of high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which regulates learning and memory, and the hippocampus is the primary “processing center” for memory encoding and storage.6

Interestingly, these memory-boosting effects were shown to last for days after administration, showing that it causes persistent benefits to brain function.4

Some of these cogntive enhancement may come from colouracetams enhancements of AMPA receptor signalling and  fromneuroprotection against glutamate cytotoxicity3



Colouracetam Dosage Information

A standard dose is considered to be 20mg taken up to 4 times daily. As colouracetam depletes levels of acetylcholine in the brain, it is highly recommended to take a choline supplement such as cdp-choline to ensure optimal levels of this key neurotransmitter.


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Phenylpiracetam Review – Phenylpiracetam Dosage Information, Side Effects, Benefits, and More.

Phenylpiracetam is a modified form of the original nootropic Piracetam, containing the addition of a phenyl group to the molecular structure. This simple modification has increased its potency tenfold, allowing it to enter the brain much more efficiency.

Phenylpiracetam is one of the most potent racetam nootropics available today and is used in many different situations. Even small amounts of it can provide a mighty boost to both physical and mental performance. Some major benefits include:



Who Can Benefit From Phenylpiracetam?

Interestingly, phenylpiracetam was first developed to assist Soviet astronauts in their missions, which were highly cognitively demanding and stressful ordeals. It’s been shown to improve higher brain function while also reducing anxiety, depression, and stress.2

However, after becoming available over the counter as a generic, it has gained considerable attention for its broad range of benefits. It is commonly used nowadays by students, writers, powerlifters, and programmers.

In fact, phenylpriacetam is listed as one of the banned susbstances in the Olympics due to its significant performance-enhancing effects. This is due its ability to enhance psychmotor activity, which is responsible for finesse and intentional actions.2

From concentration and problem solving, and from productivity to memory, Phenylpiracetam causes generalized brain-boosting actions across different cognitive and physical domains. These attributes help establish it as one of the best nootropics on the market.

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What’s the Catch?

Phenylpiracetam has so many benefits, and many people may think it sounds too good to be true.

Interestingly, after reading the current literature and user reports, phenylpiracetam side effects seem quite rare. The only real side effect is sleep difficulty if it is taken at night. Anxiety is relatively uncommon but is possible when high doses.

There is one caveat that we’d like to discuss briefly: Phenylpiracetam loses effectiveness when used repeatedly. We believe this is a positive quality however, as this is a feature that is shared with all other racetam nootropics.

There are virtually zero reported cases of addiction, withdrawal, or dependence. Phenylpiractam is neuroprotective and appears to have self-regulating properties that prevent abuse1

This is a very unique pharmacological property that really sets this nootropic apart from prescription stimulants such as Adderall.

Repeated doses of phenylpiracetam will lose effectiveness very quickly, and even taking higher doses will still cease to work.

Due to this self-regulating feature, we suggest taking phenylpiracetam as-needed. Typically, it is most effective when taken once a week. Taking it every day will quickly stop working, even if higher doses are used. However, it does have neuroprotective and memory-enhancing qualities that may persist even, so daily use may still benefit you.


How Does it Work?

Phenylpiractam was shown to enhance alpha and beta EEG activity in the brain and was also shown to reduce seizures and epilepsy.2

It was also shown to provide a moderate boost to dopamine, norepinephrine and GABA in various regions of the brain, which can improve concentration, motivation, and overall mood.3[/f



Our Final Thoughts On Phenylpiracetam

In our eyes, phenylpiracetam is the closest thing to a perfect nootropic.

It’s effects are medium-duration, lasting about 6 hours, perfect for enhancing a good chunk of your day without causing insomnia or a “wired” feeling. It’s very unlikely to enduce euphoria or hypomania and as such does not cause unstable mood swings or a “crashing” effect once the substance wears off.

It doesn’t simply make you think you have improved performance, it actually enhances performance in a very real way.

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Phenylpiracetam Dosage Information

Phenylpiracetam is generally dosed once at 100-200mg. However, many people do report they do not feel much of an effect at this range. Some people may need to take up to 400mg to feel an effect. We recommend starting with 200mg first thing in the morning – then taking an additional 100-200mg if they don’t feel anything. It’s best to use it once a week at the most, as taking it more than once a week can noticeably reduce its effectiveness.

Phenylpiracem is best taken with a choline source such as alpha-gpc, as it may rapidly deplete levels of this neurotransmitter.





Review of Pramiracetam – Dosage, Benefits, & Side Effects

Pramiracetam is a nootropic compound in the “advanced” (also called exotic) family of racetams. Among nootropics, racetams are some of the most popular due to their safety and unique qualities.

Pramiracetam is most similar to its older cousin oxiracetam, and is often considered to be a potent version of it. However, it should be noted that racetams are still shrouded in mystery and there are many discoveries to be made bout them. Each one is different from the last and as such it’s unclear which one is the “best”, especially after accounting for individual differences in brain chemistry and genetics.

With that said, pramicetam is distinct from the others. It has highly specialized actions on the brain and appears to do one thing very well: enhance memory. It may actually be one of the most effective memory-enhancing nootropics available today, based on some of the human studies.1

Pramiracetam works by significantly increasing the rate of choline consumption in the hippocampus, the center of memory processing.2 3 It does this specifically by enhancing high-affinity choline uptake, a process in which choline is rapidly converted and absorbed into acetylcholine in the brain.

By improving this natural process of the brain, significant enhancements in learning and memory processing can occur.

Interestingly, this racetam does not seem to effect other neuroransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, GABA, or norepinephrine.2 The implications of this suggest that mood is not altered in an significant way. This is highly useful for people looking to enhance memory without causing unexpected  social or behavioral changes.


Pramiracetam Dosage and Side Effects

Recommended dosage is 300-600mg taken three times a day. Doses exceeding 1800mg may be the most effective, and there have been very observed side effects at the higher dose range.

Due to the rapid depletion of choline in the brain, it is highly recommended to supplement alpha-gpc or cdp-choline when taking this racetam.

Pramiracetam is mildly stimulating and should not be taken before bed.



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1. Memory training and drug therapy act differently on memory and metamemory functioning: evidence from a pilot study

2. The effects of various cognition-enhancing drugs on in vitro rat hippocampal synaptosomal sodium dependent high affinity choline uptake

3. Some neurochemical properties of pramiracetam (CI‐879), a new cognition‐enhancing agent


Oxiracetam Review – An Underrated Nootropic Powerhouse

Oxiracetam is a nootropic that is part of the original family of racetam compounds, and is often grouped together with its older cousins aniractam and piracetam. These three nootropics are considered to be the first-tiered group of racetams, and share many similarities with one another.


For people who are looking to get into nootropics, this classical racetam family is a very popular starting place due to the relative safety of these compounds. Based on user reports, people tend to have very different experiences with each of the nootropic compounds in this family, despite their structural similarities and mechanisms of action on the brain. There are many discussions comparing these substances ie “aniracetam vs oxiracetam” but ultimately the discussion comes down to individual preferences and differences in brain chemistry.


At first glance, oxiracetam seems to be almost identical to the other two original racetams. When supplemented, it also improves cognitive function and memory by regulating choline and glutamate release in the brain. However, it has two notable differences that help distinguish it from the others quite a lot.



  1. Improves memory by increasing the rate of acetylcholine utilization in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.1 However, it appears to stimulate the demand for acetylcholine even more than piracetam or aniracetam.
  2. Increases brain activity through modulation of glutamate via AMPA receptors. However, this effect appears to be strong enough to long-term potentiation (LTP) in the brain. In a nutshell, LTP is a persistent strengthening of brain cell connections that is based on recent behavior or information. It is strongly implicated in memory and learning.3


In summation, it would appear that oxiracetam is a potent racetam that can greatly improve memory and learning by influencing brain processes directly involved in memory encoding, storage, and retrieval processes. It appears to strongly modulate activity in the hippocampus, the region of the brain primarily responsible for memory and information processing.

is often classified as a mild stimulant as well, though the effect is fairly subtle and does not result in any CNS stimulation.


Oxiracetam Dosage

A standard dose is considered to be 800mg, typically taken two or three times daily. Side effect profile is very minimal and is mostly limited to sleep disturbances when taken late at night. Headaches are another common side effect, which occur due to depleted levels of choline in the brain. As such, it is highly recommended to supplement cdp-choline or alpha-gpc when taking oxiracetam.


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1. Effect of oxiracetam and piracetam on central cholinergic mechanisms and active-avoidance acquisition

2. Oxiracetam and aniracetam increase acetylcholine release from the rat hippocampus in vivo

3. Temporally distinct pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms maintain long-term potentiation

Review of Aniracetam – Is it the Best Nootropic for Creativity and Mood Enhancement?

Aniracetam is a fat-soluble synthetic nootropic in the racetam family.


Like other racetams, it is primarily known for enhancing  memory and cognition through two primary mechanisms:


While aniracetam shares many of the cognitive-enhancing qualities of the other racetams, it posses some unique qualities that distinguish it apart from the others.

  • mood-brightening – anti-anxiety, anti-depression benefits, by enhancing the release of dopamine and serotonin.3
  • It can also increase communication between the hemispheres of the brain moreso than other racetams. It also increases activity in the region of the brain known as the parietal cortex (also called the association cortex), which is responsible for complex, higher-ordered information processing. As such, can lead to improvements in creativity by enhancing divergent thinking and abstract thought.


To summarize, based on aniracetam reviews and clinical data, it appears to benefit people who are looking for a safe and non-addictive way to subtly reduce anxiety and depression. Many user reports indicate that it can greatly enhance creativity as well, and is a popular nootropic for artists of many different professions. However, it still retains many of the classical memory-enhancing qualities of other racetams, and is a useful agent for ensuring optimal cognitive function.



Aniracetam Side Effects

Side effects are quite rare, but sleep disturbances are possible if it is supplemented close to bedtime. Additionally, it may cause headaches from the depleted levels of choline in the brain.


Aniracetam Dosage Information

A standard dose is typically 750mg taken multiple times a day. Since it is fat-soluble, it is generally recommended to take it with a fatty acids such as fish oil.

Due to the fact that racetams rapidly deplete acetylcholine in the brain, it’s generally a good idea to ensure optimal acetylcholine levels by taking alpha-gpc or cdp-choline.



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1. Pharmacology of Aniracetam

2. Excitatory amino acids and neuronal plasticity: modulation of AMPA receptors as a novel substrate for the action of nootropic drugs

3. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism

4. Antidepressant activity of memory-enhancing drugs in the reduction of submissive behavior model



Review of Piracetam – The Godfather of Nootropics

Piracetam is one of the original nootropic drugs, first developed in 1964. It is the progenitor of racetam compounds, a family of nootropics known primarily for enhancing memory.

When supplemented, this nootropic has two important benefits on the brain. The first effect comes  the modulation of the neurotransmitter glutamate, which heavily involved in cognitive function.2] This has been backed up in EEG studies, where piracetam supplementation was shown to greatly increase brain wave activity.3

This can benefit cognition by improving neuronal communication, especially between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. This often results in more abstract thought, and can be useful for creativity and divergent thinking. Additionally, suppementation was shown to increase  brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for higher-ordered thinking.

Piracetam appears to also increase the brains demand for  acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter primarily known for its ability to enhance learning and This effect seems to occur primarily in the hippocampus, the region of the brain that regulates information processing and memory consolidation.

Piracetam benefits both memory retention and recall, which includes working memory, short-term, and long-term memory.5 These memory-enhancements are further improved when piracetam is stacked with cdp-choline.7


Piracetam Side Effects

Interestingly, piracetam is remarkably safe, in fact is it less toxic than vitamin C on the body. As such, it is a very popular nootropic due to its relative safety and lack of major side effects.


Piracetam Dosage

While there is no standard dose, the smallest starting dose is considered to be 800mg. Due to the relative safety of this nootropic compound, up to 24g a day can be taken without additional risk of side effects. It’s best to experiment yourself and find the best dose.

It is common for people to stack piracetam with a choline supplement, since it greatly increases the rate of choline turnover in the brain.


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1. “Piracetam Material Safety Sheet

2. Piracetam Defines a New Binding Site for Allosteric Modulators of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors

3. Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors

4. Piracetam diminishes hippocampal acetylcholine levels in rats

5. The effect of piracetam on short- and long-term verbal retrieval in dyslexic boys

6. Effects of piracetam on the performance of rats in a delayed match-to-position task

7. Effects of citicholine and of the combination citicholine + piracetam on the memory (experiments on mice)

An Unbiased Analysis & Review of Qualia Mind by Neurohacker Collective

Affiliate Disclosure


Neurohacker Collective is a sophisticated supplement vendor that specializes in creating scientifically formulated nootropic stacks. They were founded in 2015 with the goal of using complex research and development techniques to create world-class products that are backed with high-quality evidence. Their first product created is known as Qualia Mind, designed to optimize brain function in an effective, sustainable, and safe manner.

Rather than relying on cheap ingredients that provide a short-term boost, their products appear to be in carefully created to serve you in the long-term. This means products with 100% transparency over their ingredients and dosages used, without any gimmicky propertiery blends with vague label information.


What is Qualia Mind and Who Can it Benefit?

Supplementation of this product results in five primary benefits:

  • Improved for attention, accuracy, and focus in stressful environments and demanding situations
  • Support for cellular energy production (namely ATP)
  • Enhances neuroplasticity by supporting cell membrane health and cell fluidity, leading to enhanced cellular formation and synaptic activity (neurogenesis & synaptogensis)
  • Supports healhy brain function across all major neurological systems
  • Upregulates the production and signalling of several key neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine.
  • Improves willpower and focus, heightens creativity
  • Enhances brain nutrition, mental clarity, and lifts brain fog
  • Improves energy and reduces stress-related fatigue


Qualia Mind is unique among nootropic stacks because it is a comprehensive, well-rounded product that can improve brain health and cognitive performance for a very wide audience.

The product contains quite a lot of ingredients (28 in total) with unique qualities and a unique range of carefully selected effects. The properties of these ingredients are such that a syngerstic effect takes places  between them, meaning that the net effect of all these ingredients is greater than the sum of the individual parts.

Interestingly, the serving size actually requires taking 7 capsules in order to get the full dose. The ingredients to not appear to be under-dosed at all, which is very common with most stacks. Many companies like to include as many products as they possibly can without caring much about doses or the quality of ingredients. Neurohacker Collective does not appear to share this sentiment and it would appear that their ingredients serve a real purpose beyond simply looking good on a label.

In short, no matter your age, gender, or background, this product is so well-rounded and powerful for brain health and function that it may be able to help almost anyone.


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What Are the Ingredients?

The 28 vegan gluten-free, non-gmo ingredients include:

  • 6 Nootropic compounds
  • 7 Neuro-vitamins
  • 2 Antioxidants
  • 6 Adaptogen Extracts
  • 5 Amino Acids
  • 2 Choline Donors

Some key ingredients in this product include PQQ, Phosphatidylserine, DHA, Citicoline, Alpha-GPC Uridine Monophosphate. These ingredients are some of the most well-researched and powerful nootropics that are known in a complex choline-based pathway that enhances neuronal formation and synaptic plasticity. This particular set of ingredients is particularly useful for optimizing memory formation and brain health as we age, and is currently under investigation as a potential treatment for depression and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Other notable ingredients include Coleus forskohlii and Artichoke extract, which are also used for synergistically enhancing synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation.

This product also contains Mucuna pruriens, N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine, and DL-Phenylalanine, ingredients which help increase dopamine availability and synthesis.

For highly detailed information on all ingredients contained within this stack, please see this page.



FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.





AlphaBrain by Onnit – The Best Memory-Enhancing Nootropic Stack?

Affiliate Disclosure


AlphaBrain is a highly prized nootropic stack developed by Onnit. It is one of the first nootropic stacks ever developed, and has been made popular by Joe Rogan and word of mouth. It is regarded to the one of the most effective memory-enhancing nootropic blends available today, and the ingredients contained speak for themselves.

This nootropic product is designed to work on first use, and can be used on an as-needed basis. As such, it does not require prolonged supplementation to see maximum benefits. This unique product is in fact one of the only nootropic stacks that has been tested in double-blind, placebo controlled studies.1 In all studies it was found to enhance memory, brainwave patterns, and focus in contrast with placebo.


Stack Ingredients

  • Bacopa – a nootropic herb with potent memory-enhancing properties. It has demonstrated potent pro-cognitive effects in both young, healthy people, and the i elderly. It’s primary mechanism of action appears to come from preventing neuroinflammation and increasing dopamine and serotonin in the hippocampus, the primary region of the brain responsible for memory consolidation.
  • Cats Claw (Uncaria Tomentosa) – an Amazonian vine that has been touted for its anti-inflammatory and anti-fatigue benefits. It is revered in traditional medicine for its alleged health benefits, and a recent extract has been referred to as the “The Rainforest Super Herb.”
  • Huperzine-A (Huperzia Serrata) – is a naturally-occuring plant alkaloid with potent nootropic qualities. It works by raising three key neurochemicals involved in cognitive activity – acetylcholine, nerve-growth factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
  • Oat Straw – a unique herbal compound that improve cerebral blood flow and nitric oxide. Preliminary evidence suggests it may be able to improve cognition in healthy individuals.
  • Alpha-GPC – a naturally occuring compound that can significantly enhance acetylcholine in the brain, the primary neurotransmitter involved in memory, learning, and attention.
  • Tyrosine – an amino acid used by the body to synthesize dopamine.
  • L-theanine, a compound found in green tea that can enhance attention.
  • Vinpocetine, a synthetic nootropic with antioxidant activity.


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Our Unbiased Analysis

AlphaBrain appears to have some serious potential in improving various aspects of memory. The ingredients contained within appear to have legitimate, high-quality research to back up their claims. However, there are three major ingredients (Huperzine-A, Alpha-GPC, and Bacopa) that stand out which we believe are powerful and capable in their own right.

Huperzine-A appears to be a very powerful nootropic for improving brain activity and memory. In fact, it is currently under investigation as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. It does not cure the root cause of Alzheimer’s disease or other neurodegenerative conditions, however it does provide some incredible pro-cognitive benefits that are quite apparent very quickly. It promotes the release of several key neurotrophins including NGF, BDNF, and TGF-β18 Neurotrophins are molecules produced in the brain that enhance the growth of new neurons, particularly in the hippocampus, the region of the brain responsible for memory. Huperzine-A can also greatly increase levels of acetylcholine, which is an essential neurotransmitter used for memory and learning.

Another ingredient in this stack stands out as a powerhouse: Alpha-GPC. When it comes to raising acetylcholine in the brain, Alpha-GPC is hands-down the most powerful supplement available today. Human studies have found that supplementatio of Alpha-GPC demosntrated “significant enhancements in a wide variety of memory and executive control functions, including working memory (e.g., n-back task), verbal memory and learning (e.g., recall a list of words), and maze pathway learning.”5

Finally, Bacopa has shown immense potential for improving cognition in both young, healthy people and the Bacopa has demonstrated incredible potential for improving memory in particular7, and the mechanism by which it does this is increasing levels of serotonin and dopamine in the hippocampus, which can also lead to enhanced mood and focus.

The other ingredients contained in this product pair quite well with these three kings and can further enhance and synergize their properties. Tyrosine can ensure optimal levels of dopamine are synthesized in the brain, theanine can improve focus and attention, and the others may still provide additional pro-cognitive benefits to the upper limits of possibility.





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FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.