Review of Pramiracetam – Dosage, Benefits, & Side Effects

Pramiracetam is a nootropic compound in the “advanced” (also called exotic) family of racetams. Among nootropics, racetams are some of the most popular due to their safety and unique qualities.

Pramiracetam is most similar to its older cousin oxiracetam, and is often considered to be a potent version of it. However, it should be noted that racetams are still shrouded in mystery and there are many discoveries to be made bout them. Each one is different from the last and as such it’s unclear which one is the “best”, especially after accounting for individual differences in brain chemistry and genetics.

With that said, pramicetam is distinct from the others. It has highly specialized actions on the brain and appears to do one thing very well: enhance memory. It may actually be one of the most effective memory-enhancing nootropics available today, based on some of the human studies.1

Pramiracetam works by significantly increasing the rate of choline consumption in the hippocampus, the center of memory processing.2 3 It does this specifically by enhancing high-affinity choline uptake, a process in which choline is rapidly converted and absorbed into acetylcholine in the brain.

By improving this natural process of the brain, significant enhancements in learning and memory processing can occur.

Interestingly, this racetam does not seem to effect other neuroransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, GABA, or norepinephrine.2 The implications of this suggest that mood is not altered in an significant way. This is highly useful for people looking to enhance memory without causing unexpected  social or behavioral changes.


Pramiracetam Dosage and Side Effects

Recommended dosage is 300-600mg taken three times a day. Doses exceeding 1800mg may be the most effective, and there have been very observed side effects at the higher dose range.

Due to the rapid depletion of choline in the brain, it is highly recommended to supplement alpha-gpc or cdp-choline when taking this racetam.

Pramiracetam is mildly stimulating and should not be taken before bed.



Buy Pramiracetam Capsules/Powder





1. Memory training and drug therapy act differently on memory and metamemory functioning: evidence from a pilot study

2. The effects of various cognition-enhancing drugs on in vitro rat hippocampal synaptosomal sodium dependent high affinity choline uptake

3. Some neurochemical properties of pramiracetam (CI‐879), a new cognition‐enhancing agent


Oxiracetam Review – An Underrated Nootropic Powerhouse

Oxiracetam is a nootropic that is part of the original family of racetam compounds, and is often grouped together with its older cousins aniractam and piracetam. These three nootropics are considered to be the first-tiered group of racetams, and share many similarities with one another.


For people who are looking to get into nootropics, this classical racetam family is a very popular starting place due to the relative safety of these compounds. Based on user reports, people tend to have very different experiences with each of the nootropic compounds in this family, despite their structural similarities and mechanisms of action on the brain. There are many discussions comparing these substances ie “aniracetam vs oxiracetam” but ultimately the discussion comes down to individual preferences and differences in brain chemistry.


At first glance, oxiracetam seems to be almost identical to the other two original racetams. When supplemented, it also improves cognitive function and memory by regulating choline and glutamate release in the brain. However, it has two notable differences that help distinguish it from the others quite a lot.



  1. Improves memory by increasing the rate of acetylcholine utilization in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.1 However, it appears to stimulate the demand for acetylcholine even more than piracetam or aniracetam.
  2. Increases brain activity through modulation of glutamate via AMPA receptors. However, this effect appears to be strong enough to long-term potentiation (LTP) in the brain. In a nutshell, LTP is a persistent strengthening of brain cell connections that is based on recent behavior or information. It is strongly implicated in memory and learning.3


In summation, it would appear that oxiracetam is a potent racetam that can greatly improve memory and learning by influencing brain processes directly involved in memory encoding, storage, and retrieval processes. It appears to strongly modulate activity in the hippocampus, the region of the brain primarily responsible for memory and information processing.

is often classified as a mild stimulant as well, though the effect is fairly subtle and does not result in any CNS stimulation.


Oxiracetam Dosage

A standard dose is considered to be 800mg, typically taken two or three times daily. Side effect profile is very minimal and is mostly limited to sleep disturbances when taken late at night. Headaches are another common side effect, which occur due to depleted levels of choline in the brain. As such, it is highly recommended to supplement cdp-choline or alpha-gpc when taking oxiracetam.


Buy Oxiracetam Capsules/Powder




1. Effect of oxiracetam and piracetam on central cholinergic mechanisms and active-avoidance acquisition

2. Oxiracetam and aniracetam increase acetylcholine release from the rat hippocampus in vivo

3. Temporally distinct pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms maintain long-term potentiation

Review of Aniracetam – Is it the Best Nootropic for Creativity and Mood Enhancement?

Aniracetam is a fat-soluble synthetic nootropic in the racetam family.


Like other racetams, it is primarily known for enhancing  memory and cognition through two primary mechanisms:


While aniracetam shares many of the cognitive-enhancing qualities of the other racetams, it posses some unique qualities that distinguish it apart from the others.

  • mood-brightening – anti-anxiety, anti-depression benefits, by enhancing the release of dopamine and serotonin.3
  • It can also increase communication between the hemispheres of the brain moreso than other racetams. It also increases activity in the region of the brain known as the parietal cortex (also called the association cortex), which is responsible for complex, higher-ordered information processing. As such, can lead to improvements in creativity by enhancing divergent thinking and abstract thought.


To summarize, based on aniracetam reviews and clinical data, it appears to benefit people who are looking for a safe and non-addictive way to subtly reduce anxiety and depression. Many user reports indicate that it can greatly enhance creativity as well, and is a popular nootropic for artists of many different professions. However, it still retains many of the classical memory-enhancing qualities of other racetams, and is a useful agent for ensuring optimal cognitive function.



Aniracetam Side Effects

Side effects are quite rare, but sleep disturbances are possible if it is supplemented close to bedtime. Additionally, it may cause headaches from the depleted levels of choline in the brain.


Aniracetam Dosage Information

A standard dose is typically 750mg taken multiple times a day. Since it is fat-soluble, it is generally recommended to take it with a fatty acids such as fish oil.

Due to the fact that racetams rapidly deplete acetylcholine in the brain, it’s generally a good idea to ensure optimal acetylcholine levels by taking alpha-gpc or cdp-choline.



Buy Aniracetam Capsules/Powder



1. Pharmacology of Aniracetam

2. Excitatory amino acids and neuronal plasticity: modulation of AMPA receptors as a novel substrate for the action of nootropic drugs

3. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism

4. Antidepressant activity of memory-enhancing drugs in the reduction of submissive behavior model



Review of Piracetam – The Godfather of Nootropics

Piracetam is one of the original nootropic drugs, first developed in 1964. It is the progenitor of racetam compounds, a family of nootropics known primarily for enhancing memory.

When supplemented, this nootropic has two important benefits on the brain. The first effect comes  the modulation of the neurotransmitter glutamate, which heavily involved in cognitive function.2] This has been backed up in EEG studies, where piracetam supplementation was shown to greatly increase brain wave activity.3

This can benefit cognition by improving neuronal communication, especially between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. This often results in more abstract thought, and can be useful for creativity and divergent thinking. Additionally, suppementation was shown to increase  brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for higher-ordered thinking.

Piracetam appears to also increase the brains demand for  acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter primarily known for its ability to enhance learning and This effect seems to occur primarily in the hippocampus, the region of the brain that regulates information processing and memory consolidation.

Piracetam benefits both memory retention and recall, which includes working memory, short-term, and long-term memory.5 These memory-enhancements are further improved when piracetam is stacked with cdp-choline.7


Piracetam Side Effects

Interestingly, piracetam is remarkably safe, in fact is it less toxic than vitamin C on the body. As such, it is a very popular nootropic due to its relative safety and lack of major side effects.


Piracetam Dosage

While there is no standard dose, the smallest starting dose is considered to be 800mg. Due to the relative safety of this nootropic compound, up to 24g a day can be taken without additional risk of side effects. It’s best to experiment yourself and find the best dose.

It is common for people to stack piracetam with a choline supplement, since it greatly increases the rate of choline turnover in the brain.


Buy Piracetam Capsules/Powder





1. “Piracetam Material Safety Sheet

2. Piracetam Defines a New Binding Site for Allosteric Modulators of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors

3. Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors

4. Piracetam diminishes hippocampal acetylcholine levels in rats

5. The effect of piracetam on short- and long-term verbal retrieval in dyslexic boys

6. Effects of piracetam on the performance of rats in a delayed match-to-position task

7. Effects of citicholine and of the combination citicholine + piracetam on the memory (experiments on mice)